||The pronunciation of words.
A sentence where the subject is acting on the object.
E.g. The boy kicked the ball.
An utterance and response that are often seen together:
A: "How are you?"
B: "I'm fine, thanks."
||A type of word class. Adjectives refer to words that
describe a noun.
Another word class. Adverbs describe the verbs and usually
end in "-ly". For example: she walked quickly.
||Repetition of a series of consonant or vowel at the beginning
||Where a word's meaning lessens over time.
||Using the proper noun first, and then switching to pronouns.
"Cathy glanced around the room for a moment before picking
up the book and sliding it into her bag. She zipped it tight
then let out a relieved sigh..."
||Repetition of the vowel sound in a series of words.
Helps to establish when the action took place.
cat was sitting beside the bowl.
us it's in the past.
||Where a word is shorted by removing the latter part of the word: "porn" is formed
||Where a word gains wider meanings over time. "Butcher" once meant a seller of
goats, and has now been broadened to a seller of meat.
||Using a series of pronouns before introducing the proper noun.
"He's the current World No. 2. He's known as 'the Rocket'. He
comes from the UK. It's Ronnie O'Sullivan!"
A main clause is a complete sentence, containing object,
verb and subject, for example, "It was cold."
A subordinate is dependant on the main clause, e.g. "because
it was late" - to understand this you need something like "he
missed the bus because it was late".
||Computer Mediated Communication, such as email, text messages,
||Words that habitually go together. For example: "fish
and chips" "clean and easy" "home and dry".
||The language of speech.
||Tells us something about the subject. For example: "The man was busy."
||From "con" which means "with", theses are
the psychological associations that come with words.
||Repetition of the consonant sound in a series of words.
||Using different, regional lexis.
||The type of sentence function that states something/describes
||Words or expressions that require context for understanding.
For example: it, that, them.
||The dictionary definition of a word.
Words that come before a noun to determine it. For example: "the hat" "her feather" "your drink."
"a/an" are indefinite articles, while "the" is
The structure of the text, including beginning, middle,
end, any ordering.
||Missing out letters or sounds.
||Missing words out, because the listener/reader can fill in
||Iconic representation of emotions. =)
||Language (often hyperbole) used to evoke emotions within the
||A word or phrase used to soften a harsh reality. For example, "passed
away" is a euphemism of "death."
||Starting again to correct yourself.
||Similar to voiced pause, but actually adding a word. For example: "kinda", "like", "and
||First person: writing in a subjective style using the personal
Second person: writing in a style to directly address the reader: "you."
Third person: Writing in an objective style using the pronouns: "he", "she", "it".
||Where a word moves from one word class to another. "Google" was once a noun,
but has become a verb, "to Google."
||From "graph-" which means "image" and "-ology" which
means "study of", graphology is literally the study
of images. It is the visual aspects of text, such as: layout,
font sizes, image choices, etc...
||The category that a text falls into. Wide examples are: letter,
newspaper article, novel excerpt.
||A word with the same spelling but a different meaning and sound, such as "lead" (verb)
and "lead " (noun).
||Words that sound the same, but have different spellings depending on their meanings:
||A cross between written and spoken language.
||Exaggeration. (pronounced: hi-per-bo-lee)
||An 'umbrella' noun that encompasses many other nouns, such as "animal" encompasses "cat" "dog" "goat", etc.
||The words within the hypernym, with a narrower meaning than the 'umbrella' noun.
Nouns like "cat" "dog" and "goat" are hyponyms of "animal".
||Individual language. Accent, pitch, favourite phrases, etc.
all make up someone's personal language style.
The type of sentence function that commands.
||The type of sentence function that is a question.
||l8 - later,
b - be, 2 - to,
Individual word choice.
||Literally means "in the middle of".
Reality -> the media -> us.
||A comparison where one thing is said to be another, which isn't
literally true. It was raining cats and dogs!
||A word or phrase used to stand for a person, group or place.
For example: "Number 10" can represent the Prime Minister.
||Changing the spelling of words.
||When a word's meaning is narrowed over time. "Meat" once meant food in general,
but now means a specific type.
||A general term for anything that removes fluency in spoken
language - such as voiced pauses, non-voiced pauses, fillers,
A new word.
Besides completely new words, like 'email', there are four
- Recast: Giving an existing word a new meaning, e.g. cookies
for computers are quite different to the edible ones.
- Compound: Joining two existing words together
to form a new one: firewall, laptop, website...
- Acronym: Initals that are read like a
word. Such as RAM and ROM.
- Abbreviation: MSN, URL, HTML...
A type of word class. Nouns refer to words that are names,
e.g. of a person, place or thing.
- A proper noun requires a capital letter, such as someone's
- A common noun requires no capital letter, but usually
has 'the' or 'an' before it: the girl.
A noun phrase is where two nouns that act like one noun:
Concrete nouns are physical objects like tables, chairs, etc.
Abstract nouns are non-physical things like emotions, ideas and feelings.
||The person or thing that the verb is affecting.
||Where a word sounds like what it's describing. For example:
crash, smash, hiss, bang...
||Over-extension: Where a child uses a word in a wider context than its indented
use. Such as "Daddy" for every male in the family.
Under-extension: Where a child uses a word in a narrower context
than its intended use. Such as "shoes" for a particular pair
||From "para" which means "outside" and "linguistic" which
is about language, paralinguistic features are features of conversation
outside of the speech. For example: facial gestures, posture,
eye contact, laughing...
||Identifying each part of a sentence. E.g. the subject, verb
||A sentence where the object is
being acted upon to it by the subject.
E.g. The ball was
kicked by the boy.
||Repeating sentence structure.
||Where a word's meaning strengthens over time.
||Giving something inhuman, human qualities.
||From "-ology" meaning "the study of" and "phone" meaning
sound, this is the study of sound.
The underlying meaning.
||Used to position things in a sentence.
Examples are: to, under, in, behind, on, by, at...
Pre-modification: Words (usually adjectives) that come before
a noun to describe it. For example: the pink, gently
Post-modification: Words that come after a noun to describe
it. For example: the flower, which was pink,
Another word class. Pronouns are words that stand in the
place of nouns, to avoid repetition. For example: he, she, they.
||Aspects of voice (pitch, volume, intonation, stress) that contribute
||Level of formality. The difference of word choice, depending
on the formality of the situation.
||Using language to persuade.
||A question asked to which the answer is obvious and doesn't
need responding to.
||Repetition of the "s" "sh" sounds in a
series of words.
||Comparison where something is like something else: The
water gushed down like a raging torrent.
||Semantics is concerned with meaning. When a group of words
are together with similar connotations, they're part of one "theme" or
||What the sentence does. There are three basic functions: interrogative,
||Language of a social group.
||Metaphors concerned with space. 'enter a chatroom' - technically,
you're not moving anywhere.
||The person or thing doing the verb.
|Synchoronous / asynchronous CMC
Synchronous CMC: Communication that happens at the same time,
e.g. IM, chatrooms, etc.
Asynchronous CMC: Communication with a time delay, e.g. email,
||Questions added to the end of speech to check the listener's
understanding. For example: "d'ya know what I mean?"
||Rhetorical feature - use of redundant language that adds no
||David Crystal's word for any jargon relating to ICT.
||The relationship between the text and the reader.
||A person bringing a conversation back to the topic. Usually
shows power within the conversation.
|| From "trans-" which means "across", a
transcript is a written record of conversation that was originally
spoken. (Taking spoken language across to written language).
||Temporary language - text messages are deleted, for example,
soon after being read.
||Writing a list of three things for flow. For example:
"We have sought justice in the past, we seek justice today,
and we will seek justice in the future."
Another word class. Verbs are "doing" words. For
example: run. "Be" is
also a verb, which means "is" and "am" from
that root are too. A sentence must have a verb.
Modal verbs are verbs that change the mode
of the sentence. For example: "I can walk" is
a declarative, but "I must walk" is
||Where a child makes a mistake with their language, but follows a grammatical
rule that would be acceptible for other words. "He runned.." "It was the baddest..."
|Voiced Pause/Unvoiced Pause
Voiced pause: "erm", "um", "err".
Unvoiced pause is naturally a pause but without a sound.
||The category a word falls into is its class; for example: Noun,
adjective, adverb and pronouns are all types of word classes.